In the U.S., health outcomes vary significantly among groups, regions, communities, and individuals. Improving health equity is now a critical goal for many government and healthcare organizations. Achieving equity requires addressing the root causes of health disparities, primarily social determinants of health. Targeted interventions and population health strategies can have a meaningful impact. Yet, organizations lack the robust, comprehensive data needed to define and document the complexity of their patient populations. This paper explores those challenges and describes data-driven approaches to address the health disparities of specific populations, communities and individuals.